Cannot open old project

The “binder.scrivproj” message is a red herring. Scrivener 1 used binder.scrivproj for the project’s master index file. Scrivener 2 and Scrivener 3 use a file called [project].scrivx instead.

So this error message should be read as “the master index file is missing.”

From your screenshots, there are a lot of things missing between the working and not working versions. The project.scrivx file, but also all of the snapshots and some other things, too. Creating a new backup and going from there – as you did – was definitely the way to go.