Yes! If you’ve got Verdana installed, it should show up in Scrivener. It means copying it from the windows partition to the linux one, then installing it the way you’d install any other system font.
To change it, go to Tools > Options > Editor, change the font, click apply, and then save the preference under “Manage.” That way if you need to change preferences between projects, you can just load a different preference file. (I’ve got one for fiction, one for blog posts, and another for the copy writing I do.)
I’ve discovered while fiddling with this that DejaVu Serif is available on both Windows and Ubuntu, so I’ve made that my default instead. DejaVu fonts are “free” and seem to be available everywhere, so I won’t have to copy a font file all over the place if I need to use Scrivener on another machine (upgrade, temporary machine, whatever).