In-text citations - convert to footnotes?

Sorry if there is an obvious answer to this, but I have looked!

I’m writing an academic work in Scrivener (a wonderful application!), and I am using Sente as citation manager and Word as my word processor.

I have been putting my citations (references) in-text (with curly brackets). However, I would now prefer them to appear as footnotes in my final document. From the reading I’ve done in the manual and in this forum, it looks to me like I have to convert all my in-text citations to footnotes to be able to do this - and I’d have to do that by highlighting each one individually and changing it to a footnote.

Am I right, or is there any way in the Compile process (or otherwise) to export these in-text citations as footnotes? I think that once I have compiled, there is no way in Sente or Word to convert them from in-text to footnotes.

Thanks for reading!

What exactly are you doing with your citations? Are you putting Sente placeholders into your Scrivener file, or something else?

As I understand it, if you use a Sente placeholder, then the Sente scan of your output file formats the citations as specified by Sente. For instance, this allows you to submit the same paper to multiple journals: Sente can use the same set of placeholders to generate whatever format is required by a specific journal.

But this is purely hypothetical on my part, since I haven’t actually used Sente.


Many thanks for the reply, Katherine.

Yes, I am putting Sente placeholders into my Scrivener file, and the Sente scan does format the citations as specified by Sente. But it formats them in-text and in the Bibliography, and what I want to do is convert them to footnotes instead.

Sente can’t convert an in-text citation to a footnote, so I am looking for a way for Scrivener to convert my in-text citations to footnotes - either by some kind of global change and replace, or as an option in the Compile step.

Is there any way to do this?


Another way would be to use a Word macro. Back in the day there were several macros developed for Nisus Writer that would take something like this:

The macro would take the body text, insert a correctly placed footnote marker and then move the numbered formatted footnote to the bottom of the page. Two problems with this:

1 It needed the carats or you could use { } depending on the macro writer, as markers to delineate the footnote text.

2 The footnote text must be fully formatted within the body text, as it will appear in the (bottom of the page) footnotes.

As I say this was with Nisus Writer so perhaps someone on the Nisus forum could tell you if these macros are still extant, but I have no doubt that something similar could be done with a Word macro.

In fact I’ve often wondered why someone doesn’t come up with a few helpful Nisus/Word macros to clean up some of the more common glitches that Scriv sometimes produces following compilation.

Hope this helps

Okay, I see.

Assuming you don’t otherwise use curly brackets much in the running text, Scrivener can find the notes for you using the standard search tools. But no, there’s no way (within Scrivener) to automatically change all instances into footnotes.


Thanks, folks, for your comments and suggestions!