Where are the settings for the chevrons (» ... «). ?

In the Mac version you can predefine the desired quotation marks and set them system-wide. In iOs there used to be the option as well, but currently, on the latest iPadOs version, I can’t find this option anymore. I always use the shortcut keys OPT+Q and SHIFT+OPT+Q but a preset would be more comfortable. Am I just not finding the setting, or is it not present in the current version?

You want the system to type in the punctuation you want? Is that possible even in theory, when the system can’t know when you’re opening or closing a dialog? If you want the system to change straight quote to curly (just guessing), go to System->General->Keyboards->Smart Punctuation.